MD / MS / Diploma admission
MD-Doctor of Medicine
The Doctor of Medicine (Latin: Medicinae Doctor, meaning “teacher of medicine,” abbreviated M.D.) is a terminal medical degree for practitioners of medicine. The meaning of the degree varies between different countries. In countries that follow the United States system, the M.D. denotes a first professional graduate degree awarded upon initial graduation from medical school.In countries that follow the tradition of the United Kingdom, the M.D. denotes a research doctorate, higher doctorate, honorary doctorate or advanced clinical coursework degree restricted to medical graduates. In those countries, the title of the equivalent first professional degree is Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery.
MD in India
The MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine/Bachelor of Surgery) degree represents the first (undergraduate) level of training required to be licensed as a physician, and the MS or MD degree is a postgraduate degree, representative of specialty training. The equivalent training in the US or Canada would be the completion of a medical (post-graduate) degree. Eligibility for the MS or MD course is restricted to medical graduates holding the MBBS degree.
The MBBS course is for five and a half years, and training imparted is as follows:
Pre-clinical (Anatomy, Physiology, and Biochemistry)
Para-clinical (Pathology, Microbiology, Pharmacology, Forensic Medicine and Community Medicine)
Clinical (Ophthalmology, Otorhinolaryngology, General Medicine, General Surgery, Pediatrics and Obstetrics/Gynecology; with specialty rotations such as Orthopaedics, Radiology, etc.).
After three years of study and the successful completion of an examination, which includes both theoretical and practical elements, in a pre-clinical or clinical subject of a non-surgical nature (e.g. Physiology, Pharmacology, Internal Medicine, Pediatrics) the candidate receives MD degree, whereas in a pre-clinical or clinical subject of a surgical nature (e.g. Anatomy, General Surgery, Orthopaedics, Obstetrics/Gynaecology), the candidate receives the equivalent degree Master of Surgery (MS).
A second alternate qualification termed DNB [Diplomate of National Board], is considered equivalent to the MD and MS degrees. This can be obtained by passing the exam conducted by the National Board of Examinations after completing 3 years of post-MBBS residency training in teaching hospitals recognised by the board. The College of Physicians & Surgeons of Bombay, India (Established 1912) also awards higher postgraduate degrees in clinical and pre-clinical specialties, called FCPS; it involves three years of study and the successful completion of an examination, which includes both theoretical and practical elements, and a research thesis and a viva. The FCPS is representative of specialty clinical training, and equivalent to MD/MS/DNB in India, or Ph.D. or Professional Doctorates in other parts of the world. Until 2007, the Government of India and the Medical Council of India recognised the FCPS qualification – since then, this is being done by State Medical Councils.
After obtaining the first postgraduate degree, that is MD/MS/FCPS/DNB, one can go for further specialisation in medical or surgical fields. This involves a highly competitive entrance examination. Course has three years of additional training and study and then after passing an examination, both theory and practical, the degree awarded is DM (Doctor of Medicine), like DM in Cardiology, Neurology, Nephrology, Gastroenterology, Neuroradiology, Critical Care, Pulmonology, Hematology, Medical Oncology, Cardio-anaesthesia, Clinical Pharmacology and Neuroanaesthesia. For surgical superspecialities the degree awarded is MCh (Magister Chirurgiae), like MCh in Cardio-thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Endocrine Surgery, Neurosurgery, Surgical Gastroenterology, Urology, Plastic Surgery, Pediatric Surgery etc. DM and MCh are Doctorate degrees. A third alternate qualification is DNB (superspecialties), offered by National Board of Examinations, like DNB in Cardiology, Neurology, Cardiac Surgery, Neurosurgery.
MS-Master of Surgery
The Master of Surgery (Latin: Magister Chirurgiae) is an advanced qualification in surgery. Depending upon the degree, it may be abbreviated Ch.M., M.Ch., M.Chir. or M.S. At a typical medical school the program lasts between two and three years. The possession of a medical degree is a prerequisite. The Ch.M. can be awarded on both clinical and academic competency or on academic competency. The regulations may ask for surgical experience and a thesis topic that is not purely medical, but otherwise there is little to distinguish the ChM from the MD.
The Masters of Surgery, or Ch.M. is an advanced qualification in surgical medicine, established in Great Britain in the middle of the 19th century. The qualification was designed to be awarded as a higher degree to the Bachelor of Surgery degree (usually Ch.B.).
Many universities have stopped holding written and clinical examinations for the Ch.M., and focused solely on the thesis and oral examination. Only Oxford and Cambridge still have a (“Part One”) examination before submission of the thesis and oral examination on the same for the degrees which they abbreviate as M.Ch. and M.Chir. respectively.
Many universities stopped offering the Ch.M. award when it became common for trainee surgeons to take the F.R.C.S. examination of one or other Royal College of Surgeons in basic sciences and clinical subjects.
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